1. Giovannini M, Verduci E, Gregori D, Ballali S, Ghisleni D. Prebiotic effect of an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides: randomized multicenter trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2014; 33 (5): 385–393.­
  2. Sierra C, Bernal M-J, Blasco J, Martínez R, Dalmau J, et al. Prebiotic effect during the first year of life in healthy infants fed formula containing GOS as the only prebiotic: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 2015; 54(1): 89–99.
  3. Ben X-M, Li J, Feng Z-T, Shi S-Y, Lu Y-D, et al. Low level of galacto-oligosaccharide in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(42): 6564–6568.
  4. Fanaro S, Marten B, Bagna R, Vigi V, Fabris C, et al. Galacto-oligosaccharides are bifidogenic and safe at weaning: a double-blind randomized multicenter study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009; 48(1): 82–88.
  5. Vulevic J, Juric A, Tzortzis G, Gibson GR. A mixture of trans–galactooligosaccharides reduces markers of metabolic syndrome and modulates the fecal microbiota and immune function of overweight adults. J Nutr 2013; 143(3): 324–331.
  6. Davis LMG, MartÍnez I, Walter J, Hutkins R. A dose dependent impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides on the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. Int J Food Microbiol 2010; 144(2): 285–292.
  7. Whisner CM, Martin BR, Schoterman MHC, Nakatsu CH, McCabe LD, et al. Galacto-oligosaccharides increase calcium absorption and gut bifidobacterial in young girls: a double-blind cross-over trial. Brit J Nutr 2013; 110(7): 1292–1303.
  8. van den Heuvel EGHM, Schoterman MHC, Muijs T. Transgalactooligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2000; 130(12): 2938–2942.
  9. Vulevic J, Juric A, Walton GE, Claus SP, Tzortzis G, et al. Influence of galacto-oligosaccharide mixture (B-GOS) on gut microbiota, immune parameters and metabonomics in elderly persons. Brit J Nutr 2015; 114(4): 586–595.
  10. Vulevic J., Drakoularakou A, Yaqoob P, Tzortzis G, Gibson GR. Modulation of the fecal microflora profile and immune function by a novel trans–galactooligosaccharide mixture (B-GOS) in healthy elderly volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88(5): 1438–1446.
  11. Hidalgo-Cantabrana C, Delgado S, Ruiz L, Ruas-Madiedo P, Sánchez B, Margolles A. Bifidobacteria and their health-promoting effects. Microbiol Spectrum 2017; 5(3). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0010-2016.
  12. Rao S, Srinivasjois R, Patole S. Prebiotic Supplementation in Full-term Neonates: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009;163(8):755–764.
  13. Ashley C, Johnston WH, Harris CL, Stolz SI, Wampler JL, et al. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS): double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Nutr J 2012; 11(38). doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-38.
  14. Scalabrin DMF, Mitmesser SH, Welling GW, Harris CL, Marunycz JD, et al. New prebiotic blend of polydextrose and galacto-oligosaccharides has a bifidogenic effect in young infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2012; 54(3): 343–352.
  15. Veereman-Wauters G, Staelens S, Van de Broek H, Plaskie K, Wesling F, et al. Physiological and bifidogenic effects of prebiotic supplements in infant formulae. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 52(6): 763–771.
  16. Williams T, Choe Y, Price P, Katz G, Suarez F, et al. Tolerance of formulas containing prebiotics in healthy, term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014; 59(5): 653–658.
  17. Vaiserman AM, Koliada AK, Marotta F. Gut microbiota: a player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention. Ageing Res Rev 2017; 35: 36–45.
  18. Franceschi C, Campisi J. Chronic inflammation (inflammaging) and its potential contribution to age-associated diseases. J Gerontol A Biol Sci 2014; 69(Suppl 1): S4–9.
  19. Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo J, Rastall RA, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 2014; 17(2): 259–275.
  20. Gibson GR, Hutkins R, Sanders ME, Prescott SL, Reimer RA, et al. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 14(8): 491–502.
  21. Ottman N, Smidt H, de Vos WM, Belzer C. The function of our microbiota: who is out there and what do they do? Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2012; 2: 104. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00104.
  22. Sonnenburg JL, Sonnenburg ED. Vulnerability of the industrialized microbiota. Science 2019; 366: eaaw9255. doi: 10.1126/science.aaw9255.
  23. Arrieta M-C, Stiemsma LT, Amenyogbe N, Brown EM, Finlay B. The intestinal microbiome in early life: health and disease. Front Immunol 2014; 5: 427. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00427.
  24. Sonnenburg ED, Sonnenburg JL. The ancestral and industrialized gut microbiota and implications for human health. Nat Rev Microbiol 2019; 17(6): 383–390.